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商业书信英语 第一单元

Source: 恒星英语学习网  Onion  2009-08-24  我要投稿   论坛   Favorite  
[00:00.00]letterhead  n.
[00:00.84]信头
[00:01.67]reference n.
[00:02.49]参考
[00:03.32]salutation n.
[00:04.30]称呼
[00:05.28]complimentary       adj.
[00:06.35]称赞的,恭维的
[00:07.42]attention line
[00:08.62]经办人提示行
[00:09.82]subject line
[00:11.14]标题行
[00:12.46]enclosure         n.
[00:13.57]内附
[00:14.68]carbon copy
[00:15.75]抄送
[00:16.82]full block style
[00:18.42]齐头式
[00:20.01]indented style
[00:21.33]缩头式
[00:22.65]Parts of Business Letters
[00:23.98]书信的组成部分
[00:25.31]Most business letters have seven standard parts.
[00:27.42]大部分商业书信有7个标准组成部分,按顺序包括:
[00:29.52]They are letterhead,reference and date,inside address,salutation,body,complimentary  close,and signature.
[00:36.69]信头、参考编号和日期、封内标址、称呼、正文、结为谦称和签名。
[00:43.86]When appropriate,any of the following optional items can be included .
[00:46.85]根据实际需要,可补充以下供选择的组成部分。
[00:49.84]attention line ,subject line,file or account number,enclosures,carbon copy motation,mailing notation & postscript.
[00:58.20]包括:经办人姓名、事由或标题、查号或编号、附件、抄送、邮寄方式和再启。
[01:06.56]Letterhead
[01:07.62]信头
[01:08.68]Letterhead designs vary with business organizations and occupy the  top of the first page.
[01:12.78]信头的设计可因公司的不同而千变万化,它的位置在钱柜777官方网站的上方。
[01:16.88]They may be positioned at the center or at the left margin at the top of the page.
[01:20.47]可居中也可左齐。
[01:24.06]A business letterhead,usually printed ,contains all or some of the following elements :the company's name,address,postcode,telephone number,telex,fax number,
[01:32.66]信头一般都是经印刷,包括以下全部或部分的成分:公司名称、地址、邮编、电话号码、传真号码、电传号码、老板姓名,
[01:41.25]the name of the officer or the director and even some pictures or slogans for a symbol of the company.
[01:46.31]甚至标志公司的图片或名言。
[01:51.36]Reference and Date
[01:52.97]写信日期
[01:54.57]A typewritten date is necessarily included in the heading.
[01:57.15]写信日期是信头的必要组成部分。
[01:59.72]The date is usually placed two lines below the last line of the letterhead at left margin for full block style.
[02:04.81]空出两行之后,在完全齐头式格式下靠信纸左边位置。
[02:09.91]or ending with the right margin for indented style.
[02:12.95]在缩头式格式下靠右边位置。
[02:15.99]It is ususl to show the date in the order day/month/year(English practice) or month/day/year(American practice)
[02:22.64]英国人写日期的顺序是日/月/年,美国人写日期的顺序是月/日/年。
[02:29.29]Avoid giving a date in figures and abbreviations.
[02:32.36]写日期时要避免全部数字或英语的缩写。
[02:35.43]Inside Address
[02:37.04]封内地址
[02:38.64]The inside address is typed directly below the date line at the left hand margin.
[02:42.19]封内地址直接写在信封的左边日期的下面。
[02:45.75]The inside address of a letter to an individual consists of the person's courtesy title.
[02:49.34]如果信是写给个人的,封内地址包括礼貌尊称。
[02:52.93]name,business or executive title(it should be used immediately after the name) and address.
[02:58.02]姓名、职务称呼(紧跟在姓名之后)、地址:
[03:03.12]When the letter is to a group,the inside adress includes the full group name and the address.
[03:06.67]如果信是写给公司的,封内地址包括公司全称和地址。
[03:10.22]Care should be taken to address the recipient exactly as on the envelope.
[03:14.04]特别要注意的是封内地址与信封上的地址必须完全一致。
[03:17.85]Salutation
[03:18.95]称呼
[03:20.05]Salutation is place at the left margin two lines below the inside address and two lines above the body of the letter.
[03:25.68]称呼在封内地址下面和正文上面,上下各空两行,靠左。
[03:31.30]Considered a polite greeting with which a friendly business  letter begins,the personal salutation must be appropriate for the first line of the inside address.
[03:38.44]友好的商业书信往往以贴切的问候开始,写给个人的信,称呼应与封内地址的礼貌尊称一致。
[03:45.57]If the letter is addressed to an individual,it is uaual to use.
[03:48.44]常用的有:
[03:51.31]Dear Mr.Smith
[03:52.88]尊敬的史密斯先生,
[03:54.45]Dear Ms.John
[03:56.02]尊敬的约翰女士,
[03:57.58]Dear Prof.Hobart
[03:59.70]尊敬的哈波特教授,
[04:01.82]Dear Dr.Walter
[04:03.40]尊敬的瓦尔特博士,
[04:04.98]The trend is towards Ms as the courtesy title for all women regardless of their marital status.
[04:09.59]如果信是写给女士的,无论她结婚与否,现在都趋向于用“Ms."作为礼貌尊称。
[04:14.20]When addressing a letter to a firm.Dear Sirs.Ladies and Gentlemen or Gentlemen(American English)would be used.
[04:20.24]如果是写给公司的信,称呼用"尊敬的先生们","女士先生们",美国人常用"先生们"。而事实上,"尊敬的先生/女士"被认为更正式但不够热情。
[04:26.29]Attention Line
[04:27.38]经办人提示行
[04:28.46]An attention line is considered a part of the inside address
[04:30.80]"经办人姓名"栏一般也被认为是封内地址的一部分。
[04:33.14]and it leads the letter to a particular person or department when the letter is addressed to a company.
[04:37.24]经办人姓名表示写信人希望信到公司时能直接交给某具体人或具体部门。
[04:41.34]It is usually between the inside address and the salutation or above the inside address,as shown in examples.
[04:46.41]位置在称呼与封内地址之间或封内地址之上,例如:
[04:51.47]Attention:Inport Department
[04:53.04]请交进口部经办
[04:54.61]For the attention of Mr.Donnan,Sales Manager
[04:57.21]请销售经理J.G.都南先生经办
[04:59.81]Attention of Mr.Standard,General Manager
[05:02.15]请总经理斯坦德先生经办
[05:04.48]Subject Line
[05:06.09]标题行
[05:07.70]The subject heading is regarded as a part of the body of a business letter.
[05:10.30]标题被认为是正广的一部分。
[05:12.89]Usually it is in the upper case or initial capitals/underline and placed between the salutation and the body of a letter to call attention to what content the letter is about .For example:
[05:20.99]它通常用大写或第一个字母大写或加下划线的形式,被放在称呼之正文之上,使收信人一看就知道信的主要内容是什么。例如:
[05:29.09]Dear Ms.Smith
[05:30.15]亲爱的史密斯女士,
[05:31.21]Our Catalogue No.2.
[05:32.50]我们的2号产品目录
[05:33.79]Opening Sentence
[05:34.97]开篇语
[05:36.14]The first paragraph of the body is introductory.
[05:38.09]正文的第一段往往具有介绍的特点。
[05:40.04]It will always begin with reference to the previous letter received and provide an introduction to what will discussed.
[05:44.16]通常以感谢对方先前的来信开始,再介绍所要讨论的事情。
[05:48.29]Here are examples as follows:
[05:50.15]现举例如下:
[05:52.00](1)Your letter of 9"September addressed to our Beijing Branch Office has been passed on to us for attention.
[05:57.49]贵方9月9日写给我北京分公司的信已送往我处并阅。
[06:02.97](2)We refer to quotations of 8"October and our mail often of 1 "December regarding the supply of Speedo swimming caps.
[06:09.65]兹谈及关于"Speedo"游泳帽的供货事宜,我方于10月8日的报价和12月1日的去函报盘。
[06:16.32](3)We acknowledge,with thanks,receipt of your binding application form for the 76"International Exhibition in March,1998.
[06:22.30]我们非常感谢收到贵方参加1998年3月第76届国际展览会的具有约束力的申请表。
[06:28.28](4)We are pleased to inform you that the arrangements have now been made to ship the cotton underwear under you Order No.456.
[06:34.41]非常高兴通知贵方456号订单下的纯棉内衣的装船事已经安排妥。
[06:40.54](5)we regret up to the time of writing we have not heard anything from you about the shipment under the captioned contract.
[06:46.05]我们感到遗憾,直到写此信时仍没有收到任何有关标题提到的合同下的货物的消息。
[06:51.56]Body of the Letter
[06:52.66]正文部分
[06:53.75]A body,where all the information is to be given ,usually falls into four Parts:opening,middle,future plan and closing.
[06:59.29]正文部分是所有信息资料的所在,正文一般有四部分:开头、中间未来计划和结束。
[07:04.83]Messages should be stated and arranged logically.If necessary paragraphed appropriately.
[07:08.43]内容的陈述要安排合乎逻辑,根据需要可适当划分段落。
[07:12.04]Closing Sentence
[07:13.33]结束语
[07:14.63]The closing paragraph,usually with a one-line sentence,refers to furure actions or expresses the good wishes.
[07:19.48]结束段落一般只有一句话,内容有关未来行动或美好祝愿。
[07:24.34]Caution should be taken here to avoid the closing beginning with a participle,a preposition or infinitive.The following are examples:
[07:29.88]结束段应注意避免以下分词、介词或动词不定式开始。例如:
[07:35.42](1)You close cooperation in this respect will be appreciated.In the meantime we wait your shipping advice by fax.
[07:40.21]我们对你们在这方面的密切合作表示感谢,同时等待你们的装运通知的传真。
[07:45.01](2)Your immediate attention to this matter will be appreciated.
[07:47.88]如蒙贵方立即注意这一事件,我们将非常感谢。
[07:50.75](3)Your further inquiry is awaited with interest.
[07:53.36]我们怀着极大的兴趣等待贵方的进一步询问。
[07:55.98](4)We assure you that all your inquiries will receive our prompt attention.
[07:58.94]我们向贵方保证所有你们的询问都会得到我方即时的关注。
[08:01.91](5)If you decide to take advantage of our offer,kindly cable your acceptance.
[08:04.73]如果贵方决定接受我方的报盘,请以电传告之接受。
[08:07.55]Complimentary Close
[08:08.53]信尾客套话
[08:09.51]The complimentary close is simply a polite way to end a letter.
[08:11.65]结尾谦称即一种结束写信的简单的礼貌方式。
[08:13.79]The expression for the complimentary close should match the salutation.
[08:16.40]结尾谦称应与称呼一致。
[08:19.02]it appears in the middle of the page and two lines below the closing sentenced for indented layout while it starts at the left-hand margin for fully blocked letters.
[08:24.66]如果是缩头格式的信,它写在信纸的中间,结束段落之下,空两行;如果是完全齐头格式,则靠左边。
[08:30.30]Only the initial letter in the first word of any complimentary close is capitalized.
[08:33.68]任何结尾谦称用语都只大写第一个字的第一个字母。
[08:37.07]Postscript
[08:38.64]符言
[08:40.20]The signature mainly consists of the addresser's signature ,the typed name of his and his business title.
[08:44.80]签名主要包括写信人的手签名字、打印的名字和公司职务头衔。
[08:49.40]The complimentary close may not be followed by the name of the company if it is previously printed on the letter-head.
[08:53.85]如果公司名称在信头中已经打印好,一般在谦称之后就可不用紧跟着公司名称。
[08:58.31]The addresser should sign the letter by hand and in  ink above the typed name which the typed post title follows immediately.
[09:03.62]写信人用墨水手签的名字在打印的名字之上,打印的职务头衔紧随其后。
[09:08.94]Signing on behalf of somebody else ,it is usual to wrote for .pp or per pro before the letter.
[09:14.04]如果替别人签名,通常在签名之前写上“代签。
[09:19.15]Enclosure
[09:20.21]内附
[09:21.27]Enc.Or Encs,is typed two lines spaces after the signature of the address when something is sent along with the letter.
[09:27.08]"内附"字样用于其他东西随此信一同寄出时,打印在签名之后空两行。
[09:32.89]An enclosure can  be anything in the envelopie in addition to the message itself.
[09:35.43]信封内除了信本身外,可以附寄任何东西。
[09:37.96]Examples are as follows:Enc:1 Price List.
[09:41.11]例如:价目表一份
[09:44.25]if the enclosed are more than one ,the number should be marked.
[09:46.57]如果附件不止一个,应标明号码。
[09:48.88]Postscript
[09:49.96]符言
[09:51.05]when you find something forgotten to be included in the letter body before the envelope is to be sealed up,you may state it after the signature in a postscript with a simple signarure again.
[09:57.63]加封信之前发现信中内容有遗漏,可以在签名之后"再启",补上遗漏的事情,之后再简单签名。
[10:04.21]The adding of a P.S should ,however,be avoided as far as possible
[10:07.57]"再启"应尽可能地避免。
[10:10.93]For examples:PS:the catalogue was sent to you on July 7.
[10:14.02]例如:再启:目录于7月7日寄给贵方。
[10:17.12]Full Block Form
[10:18.21]商业书信的格式
[10:19.31]Full block form and modified block form with indented paragraphs are the two main patterns of layout in current use.
[10:24.42]完全齐头式和带有缩头式分段的改良齐头是现在主要的两种常用的书信格式。
[10:29.52]The former is now the most popular practice of displaying business letters.
[10:32.08]前者在商业书信中是目前最流行的。
[10:34.64]Its remarkable feature is that all typing lines including those for the date.
[10:37.27]其明显的特点是所有的打印行,包括日期、
[10:39.90]inside name of address,salutation,subject heading ,each message paragraph and complimentary close,begin at the left-hand margin.
[10:45.68]封内姓名和地址、称呼、事由、正文每段落和结尾谦称,均从最左边开始并左对齐。
[10:51.47]Bussiness letter with the full block form,along with open punctuation or mixed punctuation,are paragraphed by equal line spaces.
[10:56.60]完全齐头式的商业书信格式采用开放式或混合式的标点符号,段落之间空行相同。
[11:01.73]For this letter-style the open punctuation is used ,the end of the date line,the inside address lines,the salutation,the complimentary close and the signature block lines are unpunctuated,
[11:10.26]采用开放式标点符号的商业书信,日期、封内地址、称呼、结尾谦称和签名没有标点符号,
[11:18.79]but a comma is necessary between the day and year in the date line and the full stop is retained after the abbreviation such as Co.Inc.and Ltd.
[11:25.43]但是日子和年份之间仍有逗号,像Co.,Inc和Ltd.这样的缩写式之后仍保留句号。
[11:32.06]while the mixed punctuation pattern,the most welcomed style today,requires an absence of punctuation marks from the date line,the inside address lines and the signature block lines
[11:39.14]混合式标点是今天最受欢迎的,它要求日期、封内地址、签名都省去标点符号,
[11:46.22]except a colon or comma after the salutation and the complimentary close.
[11:49.29]但称呼、结尾谦称之后的冒号或者逗号仍保留。
[11:52.36]Indented style is the tradition British practice with the heading usually in the middle and the date on the right-hand side.
[11:57.11]缩头式是传统的英式做法,信头在中间,日期在右边。
[12:01.87]The complimentary close may be in the center or commence at the center point.The mixed punctuation is often used.
[12:05.77]结尾谦称在中间或从中心开始,经常采用混合式标点符号。
[12:09.68]Writing Rules for Business Letters
[12:11.25]商业书信的写作规则
[12:12.81]Business correspondence is still a basic activity involved in trade,and remains a very important form of communication even nowadays.
[12:18.85]商业书信即使在今天仍然是基本的贸易活动,是非常重要的沟通方式。
[12:24.88]They deliver their companies images to the public.
[12:26.75]通过往来贸易书信公司向公众展示自己的形象。
[12:28.62]Business letters are often an arrangement or regarded as evidence of a contract.
[12:31.62]商业书信经常是一种活动安排,也被视为一份合同的契据。
[12:34.63]They are written for information exchange and bridge over the desires between buyers and sellers.
[12:37.96]它在买卖双方之间搭起了一座桥梁,成为交流信息的重要工具。
[12:41.29]The most effective letter should be easy to read and easy to understand .They must be friendly and courteous.
[12:45.94]最好的信应是易读易懂,友好而客气。
[12:50.59]We should bear in mind the point that business letters play an important role in the development of good will and friendly trade relationships.
[12:55.47]我们必须始终记着这一点,商业书信对于发展友好贸易关系起着很重要的作用。
[13:00.36]Generally speaking,we need to apply some specific writing principles while writing a business letters.
[13:04.48]总而言之,当写作商业书信时,应注意遵守其特有的写作规则。
[13:08.61]They're:consideration,completeness,correctness,concreteness,conciseness,clarity and courtesy.
[13:15.19]即:体贴、完整、正确、具体、简明、清楚、客气。
[13:21.78]Consideration
[13:22.60]体贴
[13:23.42]Try to put yourself in his or her place to give consideration to his or her wishes,demands,interests and diffuculties.
[13:29.50]试着站在对方的立场去考虑它们各种不同的愿望、要求、兴趣和困难。
[13:35.57]find the best way to express your better understanding and present the message.
[13:38.61]找出最好的办法来表达你的理解和想法。
[13:41.66]That enables a request to be refused without killing all hope of business or allows a refusal to do a favor to be made without harming friendship.
[13:47.74]这可以使我们拒绝要求而保存继续生意往来的希望,拒绝帮忙而不伤害友情。
[13:53.83]Correctness
[13:54.95]正确
[13:56.08]Correctness means not only proper expressions with correct grammar,punctuation and spelling but also appropriate tone which is a help to achieve the purpose.
[14:01.87]恰到好处表达的同时,要注意语法、标点符号和拼写是否正确,此外,采用合适的语气会有助于达到目的。
[14:07.67]It likes to convey the real message in a way that will not cause offence even of it is a complaint or an answer to such a letter.
[14:12.79]语气如果正确就既传达了本意又不得罪人,即使是一封投诉信或回复投诉信也可能收到同样的效果。
[14:17.91]Bussiness letters must be factual information.
[14:19.99]商业书信的内容必须是实事求是的信息。
[14:22.07]accurate figures and exact terms in particular,
[14:24.63]尤其是精确的数字和严格准确的术语。
[14:27.19]for they involve the right,the duties and the interest of both sides often as the base of all kinds of documents.
[14:32.27]因为它们经常作为各种单据的依据涉及到买卖双方的权利、责任和利益。
[14:37.35]Therefore we should not understate nor overstate.
[14:39.45]因此我们既不能过于保守也不能太过分。
[14:41.55]as understatement might lead to less confidence and hold up the trade development.
[14:44.66]因为过于保守会引起信心不足而对贸易造成不利。
[14:47.77]while overstatement throws you into an awkward position.
[14:50.31]相反,说话太过分会使自己陷入尴尬境地。
[14:52.84]Completeness
[14:53.94]完整
[14:55.03]As you work hard for completeness ,keep the folowing guidelines in mind:
[14:57.62]当你努力使自己的信写得全面而完整时,可以问一问自己以下几个问题:
[15:00.21]why do you write the letter,what are the facts supporting the reasons.
[15:03.29]为什么写这封信?陈述所依据的事实根据是什么?
[15:06.37]whether you have answer all the questions asked or not and what the reader is expected to do.
[15:10.21]是否已回答了所提出的所有问题?收信人期待的下一步是什么?
[15:14.05]Concreteness
[15:14.86]具体
[15:15.67]What the letter comes to should be specific ,definite rather than vague,abstract and general.
[15:19.13]信应写得具体、明确而不能含糊、抽象和笼统。
[15:22.59]Take ,for example,some qualities or characters of goods that should be shown with exact figures and avoid words like short,long or good.
[15:28.24]比如,商品的质量和特征要用准确的数字,避免使用“好和短、长"这样的字眼。
[15:33.88]Give specific time (with date,month,year and even offer hour,minute if necessary)
[15:37.44]时期要具体,用年月日标明,甚至必要时,小时分钟也应明确。
[15:41.01]But avoid expressions such as yesterday,next month,immediately and etc.
[15:44.85]避免使用诸如"昨天"、"下个月"、"马上"等表达用语。
[15:48.69]Conciseness
[15:49.76]简明
[15:50.83]Conciseness means complete message but briefest expression with no sacrificing carity or courtesy.
[15:55.90]信的内容应完整、简洁而不失清楚、委婉客气。
[16:00.97]A good business letter should be precise and to the point.
[16:02.55]一封好的商业书信应该是明确的、直截了当的。
[16:04.13]Single words are more efficient than phrases.
[16:05.67]单词比短语频率高。
[16:07.21]Wordy languages and redundancy require more time and money to type and to read.
[16:10.29]赘言繁语打印、阅读起来,既花钱又费时。
[16:13.37]They are not what modern business people want.
[16:14.98]不受现代人欢迎。
[16:16.59]Clarity
[16:17.15]清楚
[16:17.71]Keep constantly in mind what you want to say in your letter.
[16:19.54]对想在信中说的事情要始终做到心里明白。
[16:21.37]It is welcomed if you express yourself clearly and directly in the simplest language.
[16:24.16]用最容易的语言,清楚、直接地表达自己的思想是普遍受人欢迎的。
[16:26.96]Plain,simple words are more easily understood.
[16:28.85]简单平易的字句比较容易理解。
[16:30.75]A properly paragraphed message is required for the purpose of clarity.
[16:33.10]适当的分段使内容条理清晰。
[16:35.45]For instance,we use semimonthly instead of bimonthly for two times a month,because bimonthly may mean both two times a month and once every two month.
[16:42.81]例如:表达"一个月两次"我们用semimonthly而不用bimothly,因为bimonthly既可能表示"一个月两次"又可能表示"两个月一次"。
[16:50.18]Courtesy
[16:50.78]客气
[16:51.38]Courtesy means to show tactfully in your letters the honest friendship,thoughtful appreciation,sincere politeness,considerate understanding and heartfelt respect.
[16:58.17]在信中非常巧妙地表示出坦诚的友情、诚恳的感谢、真诚的礼貌、周全的理解和由衷的尊敬。
[17:04.97]Answer letters in good time and write to explain why is you fall to do it promptly.
[17:08.08]回信要及时,不能迅速回复解释原因。
[17:11.18]Even if you don't think the recipient is right,you should still respond tactfully and politely.
[17:14.54]即使真的认为对方不对,回信也应该礼貌,方式得体。
[17:17.90]Sometimes it is a help to use you-attitude instead of I-attitude.
[17:20.98]有时第二人称比第一人称更有助于做到这些。

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